PTE Summarize Written Text Task Sample 290

Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. Type your response in the box at the bottom of the screen. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

Poverty in India

Poverty remains a pressing issue in India, despite the country’s significant economic growth over the past few decades. With a population of over 1.3 billion people, India is home to a substantial portion of the world’s poor. This essay explores the factors contributing to poverty in India and discusses the efforts made to alleviate this pervasive issue.

Causes of Poverty in India

  • Income Inequality: One of the primary causes of poverty in India is income inequality. A small fraction of the population enjoys substantial wealth, while a large majority struggles to make ends meet. This wealth gap exacerbates poverty levels, as the marginalized have limited access to resources and opportunities.
  • Unemployment: High levels of unemployment and underemployment persist in India, particularly in rural areas. Lack of access to quality education and vocational training hinders people’s ability to secure stable employment.
  • Agricultural Dependency: A significant portion of the population relies on agriculture for their livelihoods. Unfortunately, outdated farming practices, land fragmentation, and inadequate access to resources often result in low agricultural productivity and income instability.
  • Lack of Access to Basic Services: A substantial section of the population lacks access to essential services such as healthcare, education, clean drinking water, and sanitation. This perpetuates the cycle of poverty as individuals struggle to break free from adverse circumstances.
  • Social Factors: Social factors such as caste discrimination, gender inequality, and lack of social security nets disproportionately affect marginalized communities, pushing them further into poverty.

Efforts to Alleviate Poverty

India has implemented various policies and programs to address poverty:

  • Rural Employment Schemes: The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) provides employment opportunities in rural areas, helping to improve the economic condition of the poor.
  • Financial Inclusion: Initiatives like the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana aim to promote financial inclusion by providing banking services to the unbanked population.
  • Education and Healthcare: Government programs have been launched to enhance access to education and healthcare services, particularly in rural areas.
  • Subsidized Food: The Public Distribution System (PDS) offers subsidized food grains to vulnerable populations, helping to address hunger and malnutrition.
  • Skill Development: Skill development programs aim to equip individuals with the skills needed for better employment opportunities.

Poverty remains a significant challenge in India, driven by income inequality, unemployment, and a lack of access to essential services. While the government has implemented several programs to address this issue, the persistence of poverty underscores the need for continued efforts, including policy reforms, investments in education and healthcare, and measures to promote inclusive economic growth. Eradicating poverty in India is a complex and ongoing task that requires sustained commitment from all stakeholders.


Poverty in India persists despite economic growth, driven by income inequality, unemployment, agricultural dependency, lack of access to basic services, and social factors like caste discrimination and gender inequality, yet efforts including rural employment schemes, financial inclusion, education and healthcare initiatives, subsidized food programs, and skill development aim to alleviate poverty, highlighting the ongoing need for policy reforms, investments, and inclusive growth strategies to eradicate poverty and ensure a better future for all citizens.