PTE Summarize Written Text Task Sample 291

Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. Type your response in the box at the bottom of the screen. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

Violence: Causes and Consequences

Violence is a deeply troubling and pervasive issue that has plagued human societies throughout history. It encompasses a wide range of behaviors and actions that harm individuals, communities, and even entire nations. This essay delves into the causes and consequences of violence, shedding light on this dark aspect of human behavior.

Causes of Violence

  • Social and Economic Inequality: High levels of social and economic inequality can breed resentment and frustration, which may manifest as violence. Disparities in wealth and access to resources often fuel conflicts within and between societies.
  • Cultural and Historical Factors: Deep-seated cultural norms, historical grievances, and intergroup tensions can contribute to violence. These factors can lead to ethnic, religious, or nationalist conflicts.
  • Lack of Education and Opportunity: Communities with limited access to education and economic opportunities are more vulnerable to violence. Education can empower individuals and provide alternatives to violence as a means of achieving their goals.
  • Mental Health and Substance Abuse: Mental health issues and substance abuse can play a significant role in triggering violent behavior. Individuals struggling with these issues may resort to violence as a way to cope or as a result of impaired judgment.
  • Political Instability: Political instability and power struggles within nations can result in violence, including civil wars and uprisings. These conflicts can have devastating consequences for entire populations.

Consequences of Violence

  • Loss of Life and Injury: Violence often leads to the loss of human lives and causes physical and psychological harm to survivors. It can leave lasting scars on individuals and communities.
  • Displacement and Migration: Violent conflicts can displace people from their homes, leading to internal displacement or migration to other regions or countries, exacerbating humanitarian crises.
  • Economic Impact: Violence can disrupt economic activities, leading to loss of livelihoods, destruction of infrastructure, and long-term economic setbacks.
  • Social Fragmentation: Violence can divide communities along ethnic, religious, or political lines, leading to social fragmentation and eroding social cohesion.
  • Cycle of Retaliation: Violence often begets more violence, creating a vicious cycle of retaliation and further conflict.

Addressing violence requires a multifaceted approach that includes addressing the root causes such as inequality, lack of opportunity, and social divisions. Efforts to promote education, mental health services, conflict resolution, and diplomacy are essential in preventing and mitigating violence. Ultimately, a world free from violence is a collective goal that demands the commitment of individuals, communities, and nations. By understanding the causes and consequences of violence, we can work together to build a more peaceful and just society for all.


Violence stems from social and economic inequality, cultural tensions, lack of education and opportunity, mental health issues, and political instability, resulting in loss of life, displacement, economic setbacks, social fragmentation, and a cycle of retaliation, necessitating a multifaceted approach addressing root causes and promoting education, mental health services, conflict resolution, and diplomacy to build a more peaceful and just society.